To estimate prevalence rates of suicide attempts and suicidal ideation in individuals with a principal diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs); 2. to identify predictors of suicide risk among subjects with OCRDs (where available).
The systematic review was conducted by searching PubMed from the date of the first available article to December 31, 2018. The search terms [suicide] OR [suicidality] OR [suicide attempts] OR [suicidal ideation] OR [suicidal thoughts] were combined with the following: [BDD] OR [body dysmorphic disorder]; [HD] OR [hoarding disorder]; [trichotillomania] OR [hair pulling disorder]; [excoriation disorder] OR [skin picking disorder].
In BDD, data concerning lifetime suicide attempts are consistent across studies: mean rate is 21.5% (range 9-30.3%). Mean rate of current suicidal ideation is 37.4% (range 26.5-49.7%) and mean rate of lifetime suicidal ideation is 74.5% (range 53.5-85%). BDD-specific factors such as early onset, severity, poor insight and muscle dysmorphia and comorbid disorders increase the risk of suicide attempts or suicidal ideation. Only 2 studies recruited individuals with DSM-5 HD: suicidality appears to be low, with rates of current suicidal ideation comprised between 5% and 10%, although 19% of individuals attempted suicide during their lifetime. Concerning the grooming disorders, lifetime rates of suicide attempts are low as compared to rates in other OCRDs; approximately 40% of individuals, however, reported lifetime suicidal ideation.
OCRDs taken together may be at risk for suicide attempts and suicidal ideation independently from comorbid disorders (and specifically independently from comorbid OCD); BDD remains the disorder more strongly associated with an increased risk for suicide, followed by HD and then the grooming disorders.